Declaration of Heads of State, Bangui (Bangui Accords)

Country/entity
Central African Republic
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Declaration of Heads of State, Bangui (Bangui Accords)
Date
25/01/1997
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - )
The Central African Republic conflict is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts addressed by the Great Lakes process. Since the mid-1990s several waves of internal conflict took place in the Central African Republic, primarily along tribal, and later-on increasingly sectarian, lines. In 1996 and 1997, French troops and soldiers from neighbouring countries intervened to end a mutiny in the capital, Bangui, by factions of the army. The fighting was predominantly along tribal lines, with southern tribes in revolt against the ‘northern’ government. A UN mission was installed in 1998 to secure the truce.

After General Bozizé took control of the country after several coup attempts in 2003, a ‘bush war’ began led by armed opposition forces. From late 2006 onward, government troops with French military support severely weakened the rebels. Following this, a number of agreements were signed during 2007-2008, but not all factions have accepted them. In 2011, Bozizé was re-elected in supposedly fraudulent elections, which resulted in a new wave of uprisings. Séléka, an alliance of northern rebel groups, took over parts of the country and forced Bozizé to agree to a power-sharing deal. However, after this agreement broke down, Séléka took control of Bangui and Bozizé had to flee the country.

Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
Stage
Renewal (Renewal pre-negotiation)
Conflict nature
Government
Parties
Parties – For the delegation of heads of African States: His Excellency El Hadj Omar BONGO. For the Central African Republic: His Excellency Mr Felix-Ange PATASSE. For the French Republic: His Excellency Mr Jean-Marc SIMON, Ambassador and Senior Representative.
Third parties
Description
Short statement expressing thanks to International Monitoring Committee and the UNDP for providing assistance to the Committee.

Agreement document
CF_970125_DeclarationIssuedByHeadsofState.pdf

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
Sexual orientation
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
Page 1, DECLARATION ISSUED BY HEADS OF STATE
...
Take note of the Preliminary Agreement on a National Reconciliation Pact, which is the outcome of a broad consultation of those representing the vital forces of the Central African nation, thereby embodying the solemn commitment of the political parties, the trade union federations and the civil society to respect the constitutional legal order and to lend full support to all initiatives to promote dialogue and national reconciliation.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 1, DECLARATION ISSUED BY HEADS OF STATE
...
Take note of the Preliminary Agreement on a National Reconciliation Pact, which is the outcome of a broad consultation of those representing the vital forces of the Central African nation, thereby embodying the solemn commitment of the political parties, the trade union federations and the civil society to respect the constitutional legal order and to lend full support to all initiatives to promote dialogue and national reconciliation
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
Page 1, DECLARATION ISSUED BY HEADS OF STATE
...
Take note further of the cessation of the rebellious action involving some Army elements, which have agreed to place themselves at the disposal of the authorities of the Central African Army and to settle all future differences and disagreements by some means other than the use of weapons;
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1, DECLARATION ISSUED BY HEADS OF STATE
...
Take note further of the cessation of the rebellious action involving some Army elements, which have agreed to place themselves at the disposal of the authorities of the Central African Army and to settle all future differences and disagreements by some means other than the use of weapons;
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 1, DECLARATION ISSUED BY HEADS OF STATE
...
Take note of the Preliminary Agreement on a National Reconciliation Pact, which is the outcome of a broad consultation of those representing the vital forces of the Central African nation, thereby embodying the solemn commitment of the political parties, the trade union federations and the civil society to respect the constitutional legal order and to lend full support to all initiatives to promote dialogue and national reconciliation

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
Parties – For the delegation of heads of African States: His Excellency El Hadj Omar BONGO. For the Central African Republic: His Excellency Mr Felix-Ange PATASSE. For the French Republic: His Excellency Mr Jean-Marc SIMON, Ambassador and Senior Representative.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, DECLARATION ISSUED BY HEADS OF STATE
...
Commend the International Monitoring Committee for the successful performance of its task;
...
Undertake to pursue our efforts to restore and strengthen peace in the Central African Republic by maintaining the International Monitoring Committee and by helping to set up as promptly as possible the inter-African force to monitor security and peace.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh