Accord de cessez le feu et de paix entre le Gouvernement de la République Centrafricaine et le mouvement politique et militaire Centrafricain APRD

Country/entity
Central African Republic
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Accord de cessez le feu et de paix entre le Gouvernement de la République Centrafricaine et le mouvement politique et militaire Centrafricain APRD
Date
09/05/2008
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - )
The Central African Republic conflict is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts addressed by the Great Lakes process. Since the mid-1990s several waves of internal conflict took place in the Central African Republic, primarily along tribal, and later-on increasingly sectarian, lines. In 1996 and 1997, French troops and soldiers from neighbouring countries intervened to end a mutiny in the capital, Bangui, by factions of the army. The fighting was predominantly along tribal lines, with southern tribes in revolt against the ‘northern’ government. A UN mission was installed in 1998 to secure the truce.

After General Bozizé took control of the country after several coup attempts in 2003, a ‘bush war’ began led by armed opposition forces. From late 2006 onward, government troops with French military support severely weakened the rebels. Following this, a number of agreements were signed during 2007-2008, but not all factions have accepted them. In 2011, Bozizé was re-elected in supposedly fraudulent elections, which resulted in a new wave of uprisings. Séléka, an alliance of northern rebel groups, took over parts of the country and forced Bozizé to agree to a power-sharing deal. However, after this agreement broke down, Séléka took control of Bangui and Bozizé had to flee the country.

Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government
Parties
ONT SIGNE:
Pour le Gouvernement Centrafricain, Monsieur Cyriaque GONDA, Ministre de Communication, du Civisme, du Dialogue et de la Réconciliation Nationale.
Pour l'Armée Populaire pour la Restauration de la Démocratie (APRD): Maître Jean-Jacques DEMAFOUTH, Président
Pour le Président de la République Gabonaise, Président du Comité ad hoc, dans l'espace CEMAC, sur les questions centrafricaines, Madame Laure Olga GONDJOUT, Ministredes Affaires Etrangères, et de la Coopération, de la Francophonie et de l'Intégration Régionale
Third parties
EN PRESENCE DE : Son Excellence El Hadj Omar BONGO ONDIMBA, Président de la République Gabonaise, Président du Comité ad hoc, dans l'espace CEMAC, sur les questions centrafricaines
Description
This agreement provides for an immediate ceasefire between the CAR Government and the APRD. Issues covered inculude DDR, provisions for security and peace during the dialogue, provisions for amnesty and liberation of prisoners, and the creation of an implementation commission.

Agreement document
CF_080509_Accord de Cessez le Feu entre le Gouvernement et APRD-tr.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
CF_080509_Accord de Cessez le Feu entre le Gouvernement et APRD.pdf

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Substantive
Page 2, Article 3
The implementation of an urgent and top priority programme to:
...
2. Create the conditions needed to repatriate, reinstall and reinsert all persons displaced both internally and abroad
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Page 1, PREAMBLE
• Considering the ongoing desire of His Excellency (Army) General François BOZIZE, President of the Republic, Head of State, reiterated in his speech to the nation of 31 December 2006, to promote tolerance, dialogue and reconciliation among all the sons and daughters of Central Africa;
Men and boys
Gender neutral wording
Page 1, PREAMBLE
• Considering the ongoing desire of His Excellency (Army) General François BOZIZE, President of the Republic, Head of State, reiterated in his speech to the nation of 31 December 2006, to promote tolerance, dialogue and reconciliation among all the sons and daughters of Central Africa;
Sexual orientation
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
State level
Limited State level power-sharing is provided, see below.
Executive coalition

Page 2,
Article 5: The participation of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity in managing government business, in a spirit of reconciliation and in line with the provisions of theconstitution.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
Merger of forces
Page 2, Article 2
The containment of the troops of the Popular Army for the Restoration of Democracy (APRD) in their present locations, pending their integration with the defence and security forces and their incorporation in civilian life.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, PREAMBLE
...
• Determined to consolidate rule of law, good governance, and related social progress, and complete entitlement to fundamental liberties guaranteed under law;
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 1, PREAMBLE
...
• Conscious of the need for dialogue to establish a durable peace throughout the national territory, an essential precondition for reconstruction of the country and the establishment of democracy;
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
Media roles
Page 2, Article 1
An immediate cessation of hostilities and abstention from all military activities and all other forms of violence, as well as the closure of all media campaigns designed to prevent attempts to develop a spirit of fraternity and national harmony.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
[The whole agreement provides for a ceasefire and its modalities]

Page 3, Article 7
• The present agreement enters into force upon signature.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
DDR programmes
Page 2, Article 2
The containment of the troops of the Popular Army for the Restoration of Democracy (APRD) in their present locations, pending their integration with the defence and security forces and their incorporation in civilian life.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 2, Article 2
The containment of the troops of the Popular Army for the Restoration of Democracy (APRD) in their present locations, pending their integration with the defence and security forces and their incorporation in civilian life.

Page 2, Article 3
The implementation of an urgent and top priority programme to:
1. Return expelled Central African soldiers and APRD civilian staff to their original training and service units.

Page 2, Article 4
In order to establish a secure and peaceful environment for inclusive political dialogue, the parties agree to end all judicial proceedings currently under process concerning civilian and military members of the APRD in Central African jurisdictions, whatever the cause, by adopting a law for the general amnesty and liberation of any detained civilian and military members of the APRD.

Page 2, Article 5
The signatories will establish a monitoring commission for implementation of the present Agreement composed of:
- 3 representatives of the Central African Government
- 3 representatives of the APRD.
The monitoring commission for application of the present Agreement may call upon the President of the ad hoc committee for his advice.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
Amnesty/pardon proper
Page 2, Article 4
In order to establish a secure and peaceful environment for inclusive political dialogue, the parties agree to end all judicial proceedings currently under process concerning civilian and military members of the APRD in Central African jurisdictions, whatever the cause, by adopting a law for the general amnesty and liberation of any detained civilian and military members of the APRD.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
Page 2, Article 4
In order to establish a secure and peaceful environment for inclusive political dialogue, the parties agree to end all judicial proceedings currently under process concerning civilian and military members of the APRD in Central African jurisdictions, whatever the cause, by adopting a law for the general amnesty and liberation of any detained civilian and military members of the APRD.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 1, PREAMBLE
• Considering the ongoing desire of His Excellency (Army) General François BOZIZE, President of the Republic, Head of State, reiterated in his speech to the nation of 31 December 2006, to promote tolerance, dialogue and reconciliation among all the sons and daughters of Central Africa;

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
ONT SIGNE:
. . .

Pour le Président de la République Gabonaise, Président du Comité ad hoc, dans l'espace CEMAC, sur les questions centrafricaines, Madame Laure Olga GONDJOUT, Ministredes Affaires Etrangères, et de la Coopération, de la Francophonie et de l'Intégration Régionale

EN PRESENCE DE : Son Excellence El Hadj Omar BONGO ONDIMBA, Président de la République Gabonaise, Président du Comité ad hoc, dans l'espace CEMAC, sur les questions centrafricaines
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 2, Article 5
The signatories will establish a monitoring commission for implementation of the present Agreement composed of:
- 3 representatives of the Central African Government
- 3 representatives of the APRD.
The monitoring commission for application of the present Agreement may call upon the President of the ad hoc committee for his advice.

Page 2, Article 6
In case of any differences in opinion or difficulties in implementing the present agreement, either of the parties may refer to the Monitoring Committee. If any difference in opinion persists despite the efforts of this Committee, either party may refer to the President of the CEMAC Region Ad Hoc Committee, on those Central African questions, which this agreement requires us all to consider.

The University of Edinburgh